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      • 香桂育苗的繁殖及栽培
      • 本站編輯:杭州綠手指園林綠化有限公司發布日期:2018-10-23 11:24 瀏覽次數:

      香桂,屬樟科樟屬,高20米,胸徑50厘米,樹皮平滑。小枝、芽、葉柄、葉下面、花總?;ü>鼙坏S色平優絹柔毛。葉近對生或互生,革質,披針形至橢圓形,長4~11厘米,寬2~4厘米,長漸尖至尾尖,上面光綠,下面黃綠,三出脈在離基1~4毫米處生出,側脈斜伸至近葉頂,在上面微凹陷,下面凸起?;ㄐ蜷L6~9厘米;花淡黃色,長4毫米,花被裂片兩面有柔毛。困橢圓形,長7毫米;果托杯狀,托緣全緣。香桂產于長江以南各地,西至四川、云南、西藏;生于海拔1000米或2500米(西南)以下。東南亞地區也多有頒。耐蔭,喜溫暖濕潤,要求肥沃土壤,在衡山山谷、山麓與甜櫧、水青岡、栓皮水姜木姜子等混生。材質略同天竺桂。香桂既是一種常綠綠化樹種,同時又是一種經濟樹種,適宜栽植范圍廣,經濟效益高。香桂樹皮可提取香油,主含桂醛,用于制牙膏及化妝品;枝葉能提取香油稱桂葉油,用于儀器工業,有殺菌防腐之效,樹皮又呆作藥用和食用“桂皮”。由于只利用枝葉,不會造成新的水土流失,是退耕還林工程理想的造林樹種之一?,F將其某植技術介紹如下,供參考。


      Cinnamomum, belonging to Lauraceae, is 20 meters tall, with a diameter of 50 centimeters and a smooth bark. Branchlets, buds, petioles, leaves, flowers, peduncle, peduncle all densely covered with pale yellow, silky pubescence. Leaves subopposite or alternate, leathery, lanceolate to elliptic, 4-11 cm long, 2-4 cm wide, tapering to caudal tip, light green above, yellowish green below, three-veined at 1-4 mm from base, lateral veins obliquely extending to near apex, slightly depressed above, protruding below. Inflorescence 6~9 cm long; flowers yellowish, 4 mm long, villous on both sides of perianth lobes. Ellipsoid, 7 mm long, fruit cupped, cupped, margin entire. Cinnamomum Cassia is produced in the south of the Yangtze River, West to Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet; born at an altitude of 1000 meters or below 2500 meters (southwest). Southeast Asia also has many awards. Shade-tolerant, warm and humid, requiring fertile soil, in the Hengshan valley, foothills and Castanopsis mollissima, Shuiqinggang, Cortex Zingiber and other mixed. The material is slightly different from Cinnamomum cassia. Cinnamomum Cassia is not only an evergreen tree species, but also an economic tree species, suitable for planting a wide range of economic benefits. Cinnamomum cassia bark can be extracted fragrant oil, mainly containing cinnamaldehyde, used in toothpaste and cosmetics; branches and leaves can be extracted fragrant oil called cinnamon leaf oil, used in the instrument industry, has germicidal and antiseptic effect, bark also used as medicinal and edible "cinnamon". It is one of the ideal afforestation tree species for the project of returning farmland to forestry because only the branches and leaves will not cause new soil erosion. Some of its planting techniques are introduced below for reference.




      1 栽植香桂的自然條件


      1 natural conditions for planting Cinnamomum cassia




      1.1 土壤條件


      1.1 soil conditions




      栽植香桂為適宜的海拔高度為450~1200m,屬喀斯特地貌,石灰巖發育而成的黃泥土。一般土壤pH值在5.8以上,有機質6.54%、全氮0.32%、全磷0.046%、全鉀3%的條件下生長良好。如土壤過于瘠薄,則會造成植株矮小,生長緩慢,葉片薄小,影響枝葉的含油量。


      Cinnamomum cassia L. is a yellow clay soil developed from limestone and belongs to karst landform. Soil pH value is above 5.8, organic matter 6.54%, total nitrogen 0.32%, total phosphorus 0.046%, total potassium 3% under the conditions of good growth. If the soil is too barren, it will cause plant dwarf, slow growth, thin leaves, affecting the oil content of branches and leaves.




      1.2 氣候條件


      1.2 climatic conditions




      香桂原產中亞熱帶濕潤季風氣候區,年均16.7~18.1℃;無霜期329~340d,>10℃積溫5178~5602℃,日照時數1042.4~1152.4h,降雨量為1152.4~1042.4mm。栽植地要求熱量高,雨量充足,日照長。


      In the humid monsoon climate region of the middle subtropical zone, the average annual temperature is 16.7-18.1, the frost-free period is 329-340 days, the accumulated temperature is 5178-5602, the sunshine time is 1042.4-1152.4 hours, and the rainfall is 1152.4-1042.4 mm. The planting area requires high heat, adequate rainfall and long sunshine.



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      2 育苗技術


      2 seedling raising techniques




      2.1 種子育苗


      2.1 seed seedling raising




      種子育苗成活率高,不損傷植株,包裝運輸方便,用不著量少,便于田間管理,生產上已普遍采用。


      Seed breeding has the advantages of high survival rate, no damage to plants, convenient packaging and transportation, less need for quantity, easy field management, and has been widely used in production.




      2.1.1 種子處理采摘成熟果實擱置1~2d,搓去果皮,用溫水反復搓洗,去掉種子表面的膠質,然后陰干失水15%左右沙藏。播種時在45℃的溫水中加入0.5%的高錳酸鉀消毒種子,浸泡1h,瀝出藥液,清洗晾干后,拌適量桐油和草木灰,備用播種。


      2.1.1 The seeds were harvested and put aside for 1-2 days. The peel was rubbed off. The gum on the surface of the seeds was removed by rubbing repeatedly with warm water. Then the seeds were dried in the shade and stored in sand about 15% water loss. The seeds were disinfected with 0.5% potassium permanganate in 45 C warm water, soaked for 1 h, leached out the liquid, washed and dried, mixed with tung oil and grass ash, and planted in reserve.




      2.1.2 圃地準備育苗地應選擇比較平坦、土質深厚、肥沃、石礫少的微酸性土壤。苗床須深耕平整,施足底肥,畦寬1,條播行距10~15cm。播種密度為4萬 ~6萬粒/667㎡,覆土厚度為種子直徑的2倍。


      2.1.2 The nursery land should choose the slightly acidic soil which is flat, deep, fertile and less gravel. The seedbed must be deep ploughed and flat, with enough base fertilizer, 1 wide and 10~15cm spacing. The planting density is 40 thousand ~6, ten thousand /667, and the thickness of covering soil is 2 times of seed diameter.




      2.1.3 播種時間播種期春、秋兩季均可,但以秋播較好。


      2.1.3 seeding time can be sowed in spring and autumn in two seasons, but autumn sowing is better.




      2.1.4 田間管理播種后要盡量避免表土的干燥。通過合理灌溉使床面保持濕潤,防止小苗失水,還可調節地表溫度防止日灼危害。播種苗一般要求灌水次數要多,每次灌水量要少。播種育苗地在幼苗出土前要進行除草和松土,一般在灌溉或雨后能操作進行。除去施肥、除草等一般管理外,秋播育苗應在行間插鐵芒箕,以減少水分的蒸發提高地表溫度;春播育可在行間間作玉米等高稈作物,可起遮蔭作用。


      2.1.4 field management should be as dry as possible to avoid the drying of topsoil. By rational irrigation, the bed surface can be kept wet, seedlings can be prevented from losing water, and the surface temperature can be adjusted to prevent sunburn. Seeding seedlings generally require more irrigation times and less irrigation. Sowing and nursery seedlings in the seedlings before the soil to weed and loosen, generally in irrigation or rain can be operated. In addition to general management such as fertilization and weeding, the autumn seedling should be interplanted with iron pan to reduce evaporation of water and increase surface temperature. Spring sowing can be intercropped with maize and other high-stalk crops, which can play a shading role.




      2.2 扦插育苗


      2.2 cutting seedlings




      扦插育苗成活率較低,一般在26%左右。扦插時間以2、3月好。選擇健壯、節間短和無病蟲害的植株的中下部2~3年生枝條中部為插條,長度15~20cm。扦插行距16~17cm,株距10cm,扦插密度可達4萬株/667㎡。夏季注意遮蔭是提高扦插成活率的關鍵。扦插苗的生根,發芽都有需要較大水量,特別是在剛開始展葉而下面尚未完全生根(即“假活”)這一階段,葉面蒸騰量大,土壤水分的供產量少,一時斷水就將造成死亡。


      The survival rate of cuttage seedlings is relatively low, generally around 26%. Cutting time is good in 2 and March. The middle and lower 2-3-year-old branches of robust, short internodes and insect-free plants were selected as cuttings, and the length was 15-20 cm. Cutting distance 16~17cm, spacing 10cm, cutting density can reach 40 thousand plants /667. Summer shading is the key to increase cuttage survival rate. Cutting seedlings need more water for rooting and sprouting, especially in the stage when the leaves are just beginning to spread and the roots are not yet fully formed (i.e. "false living"), the transpiration of the leaves is large, the supply of soil water is small, and the water shortage will cause death.




      2.3 分蘗育苗


      2.3 tillering seedling raising




      香桂根部的萌蘗力很強,一般在晚秋和早春氣溫不很高時進行分蘗繁殖育苗。由于栽植時根系被截斷,苗木內部的水分供應出現不平衡現象,必須加強供水才能解決。在分株移植后應連續灌水3~4次,而且灌水量要大些,間隔時間也不能為長。


      The roots of Cinnamomum Cassia have strong tillering ability. Generally, tillering propagation is carried out in late autumn and early spring when the temperature is not high. Due to the truncation of roots during planting, the imbalance of water supply in seedlings must be strengthened to solve the problem. 3~4 should be continuously irrigated after the ramet transplant, and the irrigation volume should be larger and the interval time should not be longer.


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